Studies show that novel coronavirus subvariants evade antibodies from vaccination and previous omicron infection |  CNN

Studies show that novel coronavirus subvariants evade antibodies from vaccination and previous omicron infection | CNN



CNN

Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 subvariants appear to evade antibody responses between people who have previously had Covid-19 infection and those who have been fully vaccinated and boosted, according to new data from researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, of Harvard Medical. The school.

However, the Covid-19 vaccine is still expected to provide significant protection against severe disease, and vaccine makers are working on updated snapshots that may trigger a stronger immune response against the variants.

According to new research published in the New England Journal of Medicine on Wednesday, levels of neutralizing antibodies caused by previous infections or vaccines are several times lower than the BA.4 and BA.5 sub variants compared to the original coronavirus.

“We observed a threefold reduction in neutralizing antibody titers resulting from vaccination and infection against BA4 and BA5 compared to BA1 and BA2, which are already significantly lower than the original variants of COVID-19,” said Dr. Center for Virus and Vaccine Research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, in an email to CNN.

“Our data indicate that these new Omicron subvariants are likely to lead to increased infection in populations with high levels of vaccine immunity in addition to normal BA1 and BA2 immunity,” Baruch wrote. “However, it is likely that vaccine immunity will still provide significant protection against severe disease with BA4 and BA5.”

The newly published findings reflect separate research by scientists at Columbia University.

They recently discovered that the BA.4 and BA.5 viruses were more likely to escape antibodies from the blood of fully vaccinated and booster adults than were other Omicron subvariants, increasing the risk of vaccine-penetrating Covid-19 infection.

The authors of that separate study say their findings suggest a higher risk of reinfection, even in people with some previous immunity to the virus. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 94.7% of the US population aged 16 or older has antibodies to the coronavirus that causes Covid-19 through vaccination, infection, or both.

BA.4 and BA.5 caused an estimated 35% of new Covid-19 infections in the United States last week, up from 29% the week before, according to data released by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Tuesday.

BA.4 and BA.5 are the two fastest-spreading variants reported to date, and are expected to dominate the transmission of Covid-19 in the United States, the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe over the next few weeks, according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control.

In a New England Journal of Medicine paper, among 27 research participants vaccinated and boosted with the Pfizer/BioNTech coronavirus vaccine, researchers found that after two weeks of the booster dose, neutralizing antibody levels against the Omicron variants were significantly lower than in response against the original coronavirus.

Neutralizing antibody levels were lower by a factor of 6.4 versus BA.1; by a factor of 7 against BA.2; The researchers described it as a factor of 14.1 versus BA.2.12.1 and a factor of 21 versus BA.4 or BA.5.

Among the 27 participants who had previously had the BA.1 or BA.2 subvariants with a mean of 29 days prior to this, the researchers found similar results.

In those with previous infection—most of whom had also been vaccinated—the researchers described neutralizing antibody levels that were 6.4 lower versus BA.1; by a factor of 5.8 against BA.2; By a factor of 9.6 against BA.2.12.1 and by a factor of 18.7 against BA.4 or BA.5.

More research is needed to determine exactly what neutralizing antibody levels mean for vaccine efficacy and whether similar results would be seen among a larger group of participants.

“Our data indicates that COVID-19 still has the potential to mutate further, resulting in increased transmissibility and increased antibody escaping,” Baruch wrote in the email. “With the lifting of epidemiological restrictions, it is important that we remain vigilant and continue to consider new variables and subvariables as they arise.”

A separate study, published in Nature last week, found that Omicron may develop mutations to evade immunity from previous infection with BA.1, suggesting that BA.1-based vaccine enhancers may not achieve broad-based protection against new Omicron sub variants. Such as BA.4 and BA.5.

As for what all of this means in the real world, Dr. Wesley Long, an experimental pathologist at Houston Methodist Hospital, told CNN that people should realize they may get sick again, even if they had Covid-19 before.

“I think I’m a little worried about people who have had it maybe recently had a false sense of security with BA.4 and BA.5 on the rise, because we’ve seen some cases of infection again and I’ve seen some cases of infection again with people who have BA.2 in the past few months,” he said.

Some vaccine makers have developed variant-specific vaccines to improve antibody responses against MERS-CoV variants and sub-variants of concern.

Re-infections will be inevitable until we have vaccinations or widespread mandates to prevent cases from rising again. Pavitra Roychodry, MD, acting instructor in the University of Washington’s Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, who was not involved in the New England Journal of Medical Papers, said.

“There is a lot of this virus out there and it seems inevitable,” she said of the Covid-19 infection. “Hopefully, our protections will lead to mostly mild infections.”

The company said on Wednesday that Moderna’s bivalent Covid-19 vaccine booster, called mRNA-1273.214, elicited “strong” immune responses against Omicron sub-variants BA.4 and BA.5.

This bivalent booster vaccine contains ingredients from Moderna’s original Covid-19 vaccine and a vaccine targeting the Omicron variant. The company said it is working to complete regulatory requests in the coming weeks to request that the formula for its booster vaccine be updated to be mRNA-1273.214.

“In the face of the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2, we strongly encourage that mRNA-1273.214, our major downstream enhancer candidate, has demonstrated high neutralization titer against BA.4 and BA.5 sub variants, which represent an emerging mutation,” said Stefan Bansel, CEO. Moderna Corporation, in an announcement on Wednesday, declared a “global public health threat.” SARS-CoV-2 is the coronavirus that causes Covid-19.

“We will present this data to regulators urgently and prepare to supply the next generation of the bivalent booster starting in August, before a potential spike in SARS-CoV-2 infections due to Omicron sub variants in early fall,” Bancel said.

The US Food and Drug Administration’s Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Related Biological Products meets next week to discuss the composition of Covid-19 vaccines that could be used as boosters this fall.

Data released by Moderna on Wednesday, which was not published in a peer-reviewed journal, showed that one month after administration of a 50-mcg dose of mRNA-1273.214 vaccine in vaccinated and boosted people, the vaccine elicited “antibody responses” The potent equation against BA.4 and BA.5, boosting levels 5.4-fold in all participants regardless of whether they had previous infection with Covid-19 and by 6.3-fold in the subgroup of those without a history of previous infection. These levels of neutralizing antibodies were about 3 times lower than what was previously reported against BA.1.

These findings add to data Moderna released earlier this month showing that a 50-mcg dose of the bivalent booster elicited a stronger antibody response against Omicron than Moderna’s original vaccine.

Moderna’s data indicate that “the bivalent booster may confer greater protection against omicron strains BA.4 and BA.5 than reintroduction of the original vaccine to increase protection across the population. Although the information is based on antibody levels, the companies comment that Similar levels of antibodies protecting against clinical disease caused by other strains are the first suggestion for an emerging ‘immune link’ for protection, although it is hoped that this ongoing study will also evaluate the potential for further protection,” said Penny Ward, an independent pharmacologist and visiting professor of pharmaceutical medicine at Kings College London, in a statement released by UK-based Science Media on Wednesday: “Rates of clinical disease as well as antibody responses.” It was not involved in Moderna’s work.

“The bivalent vaccine has been previously reported to be well tolerated with transient ‘reactivity’ effects similar to those following monovalent booster injections, so we can expect that this new combination vaccine should be well tolerated,” Ward said in part. “As we head into the fall with omicron variants dominating the coronavirus infection landscape, it certainly makes sense to consider using this new bivalent vaccine, if one becomes available.”

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